Kronos Research Group
Kronos 2.6 CPU board

Kronos Research Group (KRG) was founded in 1984 by four students of the Novosibirsk State University, two from Math Department (Dmitry Kuznetsov, Alex Nedoria), and two from Physics Department (Eugene Tarasov, Vladimir Vasekin). At that time the main objective was to build home computers for ourselves. In 1985 the group joined the START project (Russian fifth generation computer project, also known as MARS) and played a leading role in the development of the first Russian 32-bit workstation and its software. During 7 years (1984-1991) the group has designed and implemented:

  • Kronos 2.1 and Kronos 2.2 - 32-bit processor boards for DEC LSI-11
  • Kronos 2.5 - 32-bit processor board for Labtam computers
  • Kronos 2.6 - 32-bit workstation
  • Several versions of operating system Excelsior
  • Modula-2, C and Fortran compilers
  • Several CAD systems
  • Several applications

The project START collapsed together with the Soviet Union. Some KRG members found jobs at high-tech companies overseas, whereas others established private companies at home:

Company Name Focus
Excelsior LLC Software development products — compilers, cross-compilers, debug and analysis tools, etc. Makers of Excelsior JET Java VM.
xTech Ltd. Custom business applications, e-commerce, information systems, Web design and development, etc.
ProPro Group Computer graphics. Makers of bCAD — middle-range CAD, 3D modelling and visualisation system for the PC.
Avalon's Tree, Inc. Software development, consulting & testing services.
SoftBoat, Corp. Makers of Sitecraft — Web site design and publishing tool for amateurs.
Complex A5 Co, Ltd. Software R&D.


Have a look at the rare picture of Eugene Tarasov in the original KRG working environment.

Dmitry Kuznetsov (Leo) has developed a Kronos Simulator for Windows NT, carefully preserved by Bernhard Treutwein.

Read the related story about how the BESM-6 Russian supercomputer, a Kronos workstation, and an AGAT personal computer (the Russian Apple II), were purchased in 1992 by the National Museum of Science and Industry, in London.

In 1998, "Computer Weekly" has published a series of articles by Ruslan Bogatyrev "Language As An Architecture Basis" (in Russian):

  1. The Lilith Project
  2. The Kronos Project And The Path To XDS Technologies
  3. Cross Development Tools and XDS Technologies

Member Directory

At different times, the following individuals had participated in KRG:

Name (Nickname) Current location
Alex Nedoria Softboat, Russia
Alex Nikitin Complex A5, Novosibirsk
Alexander Osipov Institute of Informatics Systems, Novosibirsk
Andrew Denisov (Andy) NVIDIA Corporation, CA
Andrew Kadatch Microsoft Corporation, WA
Andrew Khapugin Excelsior LLC, Novosibirsk
Andrew Seryukov (John) Agible Software, LLC, WA
Leo Kuznetsov Agible Software, LLC, WA
Dmitry Flaass Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk
Eugene Tarasov (Jack) Wind River Systems, CA
Igor Zaika Microsoft, WA
Ilya Bakhtin ProPro Group, Novosibirsk
Ivan Liakhovenko Rule Financial Ltd., UK
Leonid Kuzin Russian Trading System, Moscow
Marina Filippova xTech Ltd., Novosibirsk
Oleg Shatokhin Avalon's Tree Inc., Ottawa, Canada
Victor Blinov ProPro Group, Novosibirsk
Vladimir Filippov (Fil) xTech Ltd., Novosibirsk
Vladimir Lebedev CPM Ltd., Moscow
Vladimir Malukh (Boroda) Ledas, Novosibirsk
Vladimir Vasekin University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

If the information above in not correct, or if we forgot somebody, please let us know.

Last updated: Dec 23rd, 2009